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详解 Linux 配置 ip 地址的两种方法及步骤

2020-09-17 08:57:19 来源 : 众元百哥 头条号

Linux配置ip地址的两种方法,实验环境为centos7.6

方法1:nmcli工具配置 (centos7以下版本不支持该方法)

第一步,通过nmcli connection查看网卡名称

[[email protected]~]#nmcliconnection

NAMEUUIDTYPEDEVICE

eth009be0948-faf1-43b6-a5a4-c19efab0bb48etherneteth0

第二步,配置ip,网关,dns,并设置网卡开机自动启动,最后开启网卡

[[email protected]~]#nmcliconnectionmodifyeth0ipv4.addresses"192.168.1.201/24"

说明:配置地址和掩码

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[[email protected]~]#nmcliconnectionmodifyeth0ipv4.gateway"192.168.1.1"

说明:配置网关

[[email protected]~]#nmcliconnectionmodifyeth0ipv4.dns"180.76.76.76"

说明:配置dns

[[email protected]~]#nmcliconnectionmodifyeth0ipv4.methodmanual

说明:地址获取的方法为手动配置而不是dhcp

[[email protected]~]#nmcliconnectionmodifyeth0autoconnectyes

说明:开机自动打开网卡

[[email protected]~]#nmcliconnectionupeth0

说明:立即打开网卡

Connectionsuccessfullyactivated(D-Busactivepath:/org/freedesktop/NetworkManager/ActiveConnection/4)

第三步,查看结果(这里使用ip addr命令查看,较新版本Linux系统支持该命令)

[[email protected]~]#ipaddr

1:lo:mtu65536qdiscnoqueuestateUNKNOWNgroupdefaultqlen1000

link/loopback00:00:00:00:00:00brd00:00:00:00:00:00

inet127.0.0.1/8scopehostlo

valid_lftforeverpreferred_lftforever

inet6::1/128scopehost

valid_lftforeverpreferred_lftforever

2:eth0:mtu1500qdiscpfifo_faststateUPgroupdefaultqlen1000

link/ether00:0c:29:84:23:62brdff:ff:ff:ff:ff:ff

inet192.168.1.201/24brd192.168.1.255scopeglobalnoprefixrouteeth0

valid_lftforeverpreferred_lftforever

inet6fe80::b7ad:e2ed:832e:99a9/64scopelinknoprefixroute

valid_lftforeverpreferred_lftforever

测试通信

[[email protected]~]#pingwww.baidu.com

PINGwww.a.shifen.com(61.135.169.121)56(84)bytesofdata.

64bytesfrom61.135.169.121(61.135.169.121):icmp_seq=1ttl=53time=34.7ms

64bytesfrom61.135.169.121(61.135.169.121):icmp_seq=2ttl=53time=27.9ms

64bytesfrom61.135.169.121(61.135.169.121):icmp_seq=3ttl=53time=24.1ms

64bytesfrom61.135.169.121(61.135.169.121):icmp_seq=4ttl=53time=25.2ms

64bytesfrom61.135.169.121(61.135.169.121):icmp_seq=5ttl=53time=24.2ms

^C

---www.a.shifen.compingstatistics---

5packetstransmitted,5received,0%packetloss,time4005ms

rttmin/avg/max/mdev=24.177/27.277/34.718/3.970ms

方法2:通过vi编辑网卡配置文件(最新版rhel8或centos8不推荐该方法,老版本rhel6及以下推荐该方法)

第一步,通过vi或vim打开配置文件

[[email protected]~]#vim/etc/sysconfig/network-scripts/ifcfg-eth0

第二步,编辑相关的参数

TYPE=Ethernet

PROXY_METHOD=none

BROWSER_ONLY=no

BOOTPROTO=none

DEFROUTE=yes

IPV4_FAILURE_FATAL=no

IPV6INIT=yes

IPV6_AUTOCONF=yes

IPV6_DEFROUTE=yes

IPV6_FAILURE_FATAL=no

IPV6_ADDR_GEN_MODE=stable-privacy

NAME=eth0

UUID=09be0948-faf1-43b6-a5a4-c19efab0bb48

DEVICE=eth0

ONBOOT=yes

IPADDR=192.168.1.202

PREFIX=24

GATEWAY=192.168.1.1

DNS1=180.76.76.76

PEERDNS=no

vi的编辑方法是,输入字母i,进行编辑,编辑完成后,按esc,再按:wq 保存退出。如果不保存,则是:q!退出

第三步,重启网络服务

[[email protected]~]#servicenetworkrestart

Restartingnetwork(viasystemctl):[OK]

第四步,查看结果并测试通信(这里用ifconfig命令来查看,各种版本Linux均支持该命令)

[[email protected]~]#ifconfigeth0

eth0:flags=4163mtu1500

inet192.168.1.202netmask255.255.255.0broadcast192.168.1.255

inet6fe80::b7ad:e2ed:832e:99a9prefixlen64scopeid0x20

ether00:0c:29:84:23:62txqueuelen1000(Ethernet)

RXpackets1117bytes127303(124.3KiB)

RXerrors0dropped0overruns0frame0

TXpackets564bytes69559(67.9KiB)

TXerrors0dropped0overruns0carrier0collisions0

[[email protected]~]#pingwww.baidu.com

PINGwww.a.shifen.com(61.135.169.125)56(84)bytesofdata.

64bytesfrom61.135.169.125(61.135.169.125):icmp_seq=1ttl=53time=28.2ms

64bytesfrom61.135.169.125(61.135.169.125):icmp_seq=2ttl=53time=30.9ms

^C

---www.a.shifen.compingstatistics---

3packetstransmitted,2received,33%packetloss,time2003ms

rttmin/avg/max/mdev=28.228/29.590/30.953/1.373ms

[[email protected]~]#

配置地址的两种方法就介绍到这里。

但是查看地址时,我们并没有看到网关和dns,那么网关和dns怎么看呢,用以下两条命令即可

[[email protected]~]#route-n通过查看路由表来知道网关

KernelIProutingtable

DestinationGatewayGenmaskFlagsMetricRefUseIface

0.0.0.0192.168.1.10.0.0.0UG10000eth0

[[email protected]~]#cat/etc/resolv.conf通过查看rsolv.conf文件来查看dns

#GeneratedbyNetworkManager

nameserver180.76.76.76

关键词: Linux ip地址 配置

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